General Neurology

admin May 21, 2019

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become the treatment of choice for advanced stages of Parkinson’s disease, medically intractable essential tremor, and complicated segmental and generalized dystonia. In addition to accurate electrode placement in the target area, effective programming of DBS devices is considered the most important factor for the individual outcome after DBS.… Read More...

admin May 21, 2019

Introduction: Recent studies of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have revealed disturbances in high-level components of social cognition, such as impaired mentalizing and empathy. The present study investigated this socio-cognitive profile in MS patients in more detail by examining not only affective mentalizing but also the performance on tasks measuring more fundamental components – namely, imitative tendencies and visual perspective taking – and any associated neuroanatomical alterations.… Read More...

admin May 21, 2019

Adolescents and young adults are often in a particularly vulnerable position following acquired brain injury. In addition to neurological and cognitive impairment, they are faced with issues concerning education, job, family, and social life. Moreover, they may be limited in meeting peers and may be left alone with psychosocial issues.… Read More...

Anna C. Geraghty, Erin M. Gibson, Reem A. Ghanem, Jacob J. Greene, Alfonso Ocampo, Andrea K. Goldstein, Lijun Ni, Tao Yang, Rebecca M. Marton, Sergiu P. Paşca, Michael E. Greenberg, Frank M. Longo, Michelle Monje May 20, 2019

Methotrexate chemotherapy results in a microglial-dependent reduction of Bdnf expression and loss of activity-regulated myelination, which requires Bdnf to TrkB signaling. OPC-specific loss of TrkB results in cognitive impairment. Stimulating OPC TrkB signaling restores myelination and rescues cognition after MTX.

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Yiling Zhang, Philip R. Williams, Anne Jacobi, Chen Wang, Anurag Goel, Arlene A. Hirano, Nicholas C. Brecha, Daniel Kerschensteiner, Zhigang He May 20, 2019

Zhang et al. (2019) find that amacrine cell hyperactivation after RGC axotomy prevents IGF1 responsiveness. Blocking amacrine cell synaptic activity potentiates IGF1-mediated axon regeneration by maintaining IGF1R localization to primary cilia, a localization that is normally lost in injured RGCs.

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admin May 17, 2019

The neuromuscular junction, also called myoneural junction, is a site of chemical communication between a nerve fiber and a muscle cell. There are many types of channels at neuromuscular junction that play indispensable roles in neuromuscular signal transmission, such as voltage-gated calcium channels and voltage-gated potassium channels on presynaptic membrane, and acetylcholine receptors on postsynaptic membrane.… Read More...

admin May 17, 2019

Introduction. Traditionally, predictive models of in-hospital mortality in ischemic stroke have focused on individual patient variables, to the neglect of in-hospital contextual variables. In addition, frequently used scores predict more the risk of sequelae than mortality, and, to date, there has only been anecdotal use of structural equations in elaborating such measures.… Read More...

admin May 17, 2019

Introduction: Symptoms following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) usually resolve quickly but may persist past three months in up to 15% of children. Mechanisms of mTBI recovery are poorly understood, but may involve alterations in cortical neurophysiology. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) can non-invasively investigate such mechanisms, but the time course of neurophysiological changes in mTBI are unknown.… Read More...

admin May 17, 2019

Introduction: Disorders of Arousal (DoA) are NREM parasomnias that have been typically regarded as self-limited childhood manifestations. It is now clear that DoA can persist in adults, often presenting with distinctive characteristics. So far, few studies have described the clinical course and characteristics of DoA in adulthood, therefore a large part of their semiology is ignored.… Read More...

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