General Neurology

Jun Li, Wenyan Han, Kenneth A. Pelkey, Jingjing Duan, Xia Mao, Ya-Xian Wang, Michael T. Craig, Lijin Dong, Ronald S. Petralia, Chris J. McBain, Wei Lu October 26, 2017

Li et al. report a hierarchical process mediated by Neuroligin 2 and Slitrk3 for GABAergic synapse development. Neuroligin 2 also interacts with Slitrk3 to regulate GABAergic synaptogenesis. Selective perturbation of this interaction decreases GABAergic synaptic transmission and impairs hippocampal network activities.… Read More...

Santhosh Sethuramanujam, Xiaoyang Yao, Geoff deRosenroll, Kevin L. Briggman, Greg D. Field, Gautam B. Awatramani October 26, 2017

Sethuramanujam et al. demonstrate that common bipolar input to DSGCs and GABAergic/cholinergic starburst amacrine cells is differentially processed using NMDA and AMPA receptors, respectively. Results further indicate how this synaptic arrangement enhances the DSGC’s ability to code direction at threshold contrast.… Read More...

Samuel J. Barnes, Eleonora Franzoni, R. Irene Jacobsen, Ferenc Erdelyi, Gabor Szabo, Claudia Clopath, Georg B. Keller, Tara Keck October 26, 2017

Barnes et al. show that TNF-α-dependent spine size increases are correlated with recent spine loss within dendritic branches in both inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons in vivo following visual deprivation. Branch-specific plasticity increases information processing relative to global plasticity.

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Marshall, R. S., Lioutas, V.-A. October 26, 2017

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), first described in 1927 as a congophilic angiopathy associated with amyloid plaque in brains of patients with Alzheimer dementia,1 has an association with large and small intracranial hemorrhages (ICH). The differential diagnosis of ICH therefore includes CAA, especially in older patients or those without hypertension.… Read More...

Weston, P. S. J., Poole, T., Ryan, N. S., Nair, A., Liang, Y., Macpherson, K., Druyeh, R., Malone, I. B., Ahsan, R. L., Pemberton, H., Klimova, J., Mead, S., Blennow, K., Rossor, M. N., Schott, J. M., Zetterberg, H., Fox, N. C. October 26, 2017

Objectives:

To investigate whether serum neurofilament light (NfL) concentration is increased in familial Alzheimer disease (FAD), both pre and post symptom onset, and whether it is associated with markers of disease stage and severity.

Methods:

We recruited 48 individuals from families with PSEN1 or APP mutations to a cross-sectional study: 18 had symptomatic Alzheimer disease (AD) and 30 were asymptomatic but at 50% risk of carrying a mutation.… Read More...

Graff-Radford, J., Williams, L., Jones, D. T., Benarroch, E. E. October 26, 2017

The striatum participates in parallel corticobasal ganglia–thalamocortical loops interconnecting its different territories with areas of the frontal lobe, forming partially segregated motor, oculomotor, associative, and limbic circuits.1 Human studies using resting-state fMRI2–4 and diffusion tensor imaging5–10 confirm the presence of a functional parcellation of the human striatum, particularly the caudate nucleus,11 based on segregated corticostriatal connections.… Read More...

Charidimou, A., Boulouis, G., Roongpiboonsopit, D., Auriel, E., Pasi, M., Haley, K., van Etten, E. S., Martinez-Ramirez, S., Ayres, A., Vashkevich, A., Schwab, K. M., Goldstein, J. N., Rosand, J., Viswanathan, A., Greenberg, S. M., Gurol, M. E. October 26, 2017

Objective:

In order to explore the mechanisms of cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) multifocality and its clinical implications for recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), we used a new rating method that we developed specifically to evaluate cSS extent at spatially separated foci.… Read More...

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