General Neurology

Delia M. Talos, Leah M. Jacobs, Sarah Gourmaud, Carlos A Coto, Hongyu Sun, Kuei-Cheng Lim, Timothy H. Lucas, Kathryn A. Davis, Maria Martinez-Lage, Frances E. Jensen January 16, 2018

ABSTRACT

Objective: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic epilepsy syndrome defined by seizures and progressive neurological disabilities, including cognitive impairments, anxiety and depression. Here, human TLE specimens were investigated focusing on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) Complex 1 (mTORC1) and Complex 2 (mTORC2) activities in the brain, as both pathways may represent unique targets for treatment.

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Arman Eshaghi, Ferran Prados, Wallace Brownlee, Daniel R. Altmann, Carmen Tur, M. Jorge Cardoso, Floriana De Angelis, Steven H. van de Pavert, Niamh Cawley, Nicola De Stefano, M. Laura Stromillo, Marco Battaglini, Serena Ruggieri, Claudio Gasperini, Massimo Filippi, Maria A. Rocca, Alex Rovira, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Hugo Vrenken, Cyra E Leurs, Joep Killestein, Lukas Pirpamer, Christian Enzinger, Sebastien Ourselin, Claudia A.M. Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Declan Chard, Alan J. Thompson, Daniel C. Alexander, Frederik Barkhof, Olga Ciccarelli, January 16, 2018

Abstract

Objective: Grey matter (GM) atrophy occurs in all multiple sclerosis (MS) phenotypes. We investigated whether there is a spatiotemporal pattern of GM atrophy that is associated with faster disability accumulation in MS.

Methods: We analysed 3,604 brain high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans from 1,417 participants: 1,214 MS patients (253 clinically-isolated syndrome[CIS], 708 relapsing-remitting[RRMS], 128 secondary-progressive[SPMS], 125 primary-progressive[PPMS]), over an average follow-up of 2.41 years (standard deviation[SD]=1.97), and 203 healthy controls (HCs) [average follow-up=1.83 year, SD=1.77], attending 7 European centres.

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David A. Giles, Jesse M. Washnock-Schmid, Patrick C. Duncker, Somiah Dahlawi, Gerald Ponath, David Pitt, Benjamin M. Segal January 16, 2018

Objective

Myeloid cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, are a prominent component of central nervous system (CNS) infiltrates during multiple sclerosis (MS) and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although myeloid cells are generally thought to be proinflammatory, alternatively polarized subsets can serve noninflammatory and/or reparative functions.

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Guang-Wei Zhang, Wen-Jian Sun, Brian Zingg, Li Shen, Jufang He, Ying Xiong, Huizhong W. Tao, Li I. Zhang January 16, 2018

Zhang et al. revealed a previously unrecognized central auditory pathway, which is involved in processing aversive acoustic signals and contributes to auditory fear conditioning. It opens a window to reconsider the overall strategy for auditory information processing in the brain.

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Christian Madry, Vasiliki Kyrargyri, I. Lorena Arancibia-Cárcamo, Renaud Jolivet, Shinichi Kohsaka, Robert M. Bryan, David Attwell January 16, 2018

Microglia survey the brain for invading micro-organisms, remove dying neurons, and prune synapses during development. We show that maintenance of the microglial resting potential by THIK-1 K+ channels is essential for maintaining microglial ramification, surveillance, and interleukin-1β release.

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