Neurons encoding sleep need and sleep-inducing neurons are recurrently connected. A crucial link in the circuit is necessary for visually guided movements but inhibited during sleep. A unified mechanism can thus account for sensory, motor, and homeostatic aspects of sleep.
Exposure to early adverse experiences is associated with an increased risk of developing social dysfunction later in life. Shin et al. show that Drd3 signaling and its corresponding effects on neural activity in the LS are both necessary and sufficient to cause early life stress-induced social abnormalities in adulthood.… Read More...
Morphometric similarity mapping is a robust new method to examine the structural organization of individual brains in vivo. It provides morphometric similarity networks (MSNs) that capture cellular, molecular, and functional features of the brain and predict inter-individual differences in cognition.
Lee et al. establish flies as a model to characterize calcium taste. They show that high calcium is aversive, identify taste neurons and receptors required for calcium avoidance, and demonstrate that avoidance of foods with excessive calcium promotes survival.
A stack of five 5 micron-thick confocal photomicrographs showing the striatum in a rat injected into the frontal cortex with a viral agent causing neurons to express channelrhodopsin 2 fused to a derivative of green fluorescent protein. Note the bundles of descending cortical axons, and the ramifications and small axonal boutons scattered within the striatum.
This informal observational study on the tic prevalence in 40 young singers was carried out during a public concert of Bach’s Christmas Oratorio. Tics were highly prevalent (present in 35% = 14 boys). Given the possibility of an overrepresentation of perioral tics in this group of highly achieving young vocal artists, one might speculate that there is a relationship between the ability of the motor system to produce a surplus of movements (tics) and high performance (exquisite singing).
Reversible myelin vacuolization is associated with variable conditions including mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS), which is characterized by mildly impaired consciousness and transient splenial lesion. Familial and/or recurrent cases with a clinical diagnosis of MERS suggest the presence of genetic factors.