Clinical–pathological studies remain the gold-standard for the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, mounting data from genetic PD autopsies challenge the diagnosis of PD based on Lewy body pathology. Most of the confirmed genetic risks for PD show heterogenous neuropathology, even within kindreds, which may or may not include Lewy body pathology.
We sought to determine whether abnormalities in emotion processing underlie functional (psychogenic) dystonia, one of the most common functional movement disorders.
Motor and emotion circuits were examined in 12 participants with functional dystonia, 12 with primary organic dystonia, and 25 healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 4T and a finger-tapping task (motor task), a basic emotion-recognition task (emotional faces task), and an intense-emotion stimuli task.
A proportion of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients (PDidiopathic) with dementia show altered CSF profiles of amyloid β (Aβ) and Tau. PD patients with Glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutations (PDGBA) present with even more cognitive decline than seen in PDidiopathic.