Diffusion tensor imaging has received major interest to highlight markers of neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Whether the alteration of diffusion parameters mostly depicts dopaminergic lesions or can also reveal serotonergic denervation remains a question.
The aim of this study was to determine the best diffusion tensor imaging markers of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 3,4-methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA; also known as ecstasy) lesions in the nonhuman primate.
Falls are a major determinant of poor quality of life, immobilization, and reduced life expectancy in people affected by Parkinson’s disease (PD) and in older adults more generally. Although many questions remain, recent research has advanced the understanding of this complex problem.
Prospective data on cognition in prodromal Parkinson’s disease are limited. The objectives of this study were to assess in prodromal PD (1) if baseline cognition predicts conversion to clinical PD, (2) if baseline dopamine transporter binding predicts longitudinal changes in cognition, and (3) if impaired olfaction predicts future cognitive decline.
Although other nonmotor phenomena representing possible prodromal symptoms of Parkinson’s disease have been described in some detail, the occurrence and characteristics of cognitive decline in this early phase of the disease are less well understood. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of research on cognitive changes in prodromal PD.