Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is often defined as a prolonged seizure which fails to respond to two or more anti-seizure medications (ASMs), including at least one non-benzodiazepine ASM [1]. In children, RSE is a devastating condition associated with considerable mortality and long-term neurological morbidity [2,3]. For example, the case fatality for convulsive status epilepticus (SE) was 11% in the north London cohort, with cumulative incidence of epilepsy, intellectual disability, and motor impairment of 25%, 12%, and 5% respectively in survivors after a median follow-up of 9 years [4,5].

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