Based on criteria from the Neurocritical Care Society Status Epilepticus Guideline Writing Committee, status epilepticus (SE) is defined as five or more minutes of continuous seizure activity or recurrent seizure activity without returning to baseline. Patients who fail standard antiepileptic drug (AED) regimens for SE (initial benzodiazepine plus second antiepileptic drug) are considered to be in refractory status epilepticus (RSE). RSE carries a mortality that is three-fold that of non-refractory SE [1], and occurs in 23%–43% of patients with SE [1].

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