Objective

To understand the efficacy of zolmitriptan applied with Adhesive Dermally Applied Microarray (ADAM) in treating types of migraine (those with severe headache pain, the presence of nausea, treatment ≥2 hours after migraine onset, or migraine present upon awakening) that are historically considered to be less responsive to oral medications.

Background

ADAM is an investigational system for intracutaneous drug administration. In a pivotal Phase 2b/3 study (ZOTRIP, N = 321 in the modified intention‐to‐treat population), ADAM zolmitriptan 3.8 mg provided superior pain freedom and freedom from patients’ usual most bothersome associated symptom (MBS), compared with placebo at 2 hours post‐dose. We undertook a post hoc analysis of data from the ZOTRIP trial to examine these same outcomes in subsets of patients whose migraine characteristics have been associated with poorer outcomes when treated with oral medications.

Methods

The ZOTRIP trial was a multicenter, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, parallel group Phase 2b/3 study conducted at 36 sites in the United States. Presented here are post hoc subgroup analyses of patients with nausea (n = 110) or severe pain (n = 72) at baseline, those whose treatment was delayed 2 or more hours after onset (n = 75), and those who awoke with migraine (n = 80). The Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test was used to assess whether patients in the ADAM zolmitriptan 3.8 mg group had superior treatment outcomes compared with placebo.

Results

In patients with nausea, 2‐hour pain freedom was achieved in 44% (26/59) in the ADAM zolmitriptan 3.8 mg group and 14% (7/51) in the placebo group (P = .005) (odds ratio = 5.11, 95% CI: 1.96–13.30), and 2‐hour MBS freedom was achieved in 68% (40/59) in the active treatment group and 45% (23/51) of those receiving placebo (P = .009) (odds ratio = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.28–6.43). For those with severe pain, corresponding pain‐free values were 26% (10/39) and 15% (5/33) (P = .249) (odds ratio = 2.14, 95% CI: 0.60–7.62), and MBS‐free values were 64% (25/39) and 42% (14/33) (P = .038) (odds ratio = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.05–7.79). Among participants who awoke with migraine, 44% (16/36) and 16% (7/44) were pain‐free in the ADAM zolmitriptan 3.8 mg and placebo groups, respectively (P = .006) (odds ratio = 4.29, 95% CI: 1.50–12.31), and 72% (26/36) vs 39% (17/44) were MBS‐free, respectively (P = .003) (odds ratio = 4.40, 95% CI: 1.61–12.05). In those whose treatment was delayed ≥2 hours, pain freedom in the active treatment group and placebo group were 33% (12/36) and 10% (4/39), respectively (P = .017) (odds ratio = 4.33, 95% CI: 1.24–15.10), and MBS freedom was achieved in 69% (25/36) and 41% (16/39), respectively, in the delayed treatment group (P = .014) (odds ratio = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.27–8.95). No significant effects (overall interaction P = .353) were observed in logistical regression models of treatment by subgroup interaction.

Conclusion

Severe pain, delayed treatment, awakening with a headache, and the presence of nausea are factors that predict a poorer response to acute migraine treatment. In these post hoc analyses of subgroups of patients with each of these characteristics in the ZOTRIP trial, participants receiving ADAM zolmitriptan 3.8 mg displayed nearly uniformly better headache responses (2‐hour headache freedom and 2‐hour MBS freedom) compared with those who received placebo.

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