Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), previously known as pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTC) is a serious neurological disorder that can lead to irreversible visual loss. Predominantly a disorder affecting women in reproductive years, the pediatric population is not spared.
In the past few years, the condition has been redefined, due to new accepted values for opening pressure in children and advances in neuroimaging. Emerging techniques in ophthalmology are being increasingly used to monitor disease in these patients. And, although the treatment tools have not changed in several years, important evidence for efficacy for acetazolamide finally came to light in recent years in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT).
This review article provides an overview on recent advances in diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of IIH.