In this review, we focus on nonmedication treatment approaches to chronic daily headaches and chronic migraine. We review the current scientific data on studies using multimodal treatments, especially physical therapy and occupational therapy, and provide recommendations on the formation of interdisciplinary headache teams.


Chronic daily headache, which includes chronic migraine, is a particularly challenging clinical entity which often involves multiple headache types and comorbidities. A team approach in treating these patients may be particularly useful.


We review all current studies performed with at least one or more other modality in addition to usual medical treatment, with a focus on physical and occupational therapy. Emphasis on physical and occupational therapy with an explanation of their methods and role in multidisciplinary treatment is a pivotal part of this review. We also suggest approaches to setting up a multimodality clinic for the busy headache clinician.


Setting up a collaborative, multidisciplinary team of specialists in headache practices with the goal of modifying physical, environmental, and psychological triggers for chronic daily headaches may facilitate treatment of these refractory patients.



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