Within‐ and between‐study heterogeneity impede identification of valid primary headache biomarkers. Homogenous subgroup identification and investigation of differential biochemical profiles and networks within and across headache categories, based on statistical techniques, might promote biomarker discovery. When studying common primary headaches with a multifactorial etiology, variability might be captured at different levels (eg, genetics, clinical features, comorbidities, triggers). Moreover, focus on biochemical profiles instead of single compounds is crucial to develop strategies for accurate differential diagnosis.


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