We report a new transthyretin (ATTR) gene c.272C>G mutation and variant protein, p.Leu32Val, in a kindred of Bolivian origin with a rapid progressive peripheral neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Three individuals from a kindred with peripheral nerve and cardiac amyloidosis were examined. Analysis of the TTR gene was performed by Sanger direct sequencing. Neuropathologic examination was obtained on the index patient with mass spectrometry study of the ATTR deposition. Direct DNA sequence analysis of exons 2, 3, and 4 of the TTR gene demonstrated a c.272 C>G mutation in exon 2 (p.L32V). Sural nerve biopsy revealed massive amyloid deposition in the perineurium, endoneurium and vasa nervorum. Mass spectrometric analyses of ATTR immunoprecipitated from nerve biopsy showed the presence of both wild-type and variant proteins. The observed mass results for the wild-type and variant proteins were consistent with the predicted values calculated from the genetic analysis data. The ATTR L32V is associated with a severe course. This has implications for treatment of affected individuals and counseling of family members.