The most common form of childhood muscular dystrophy is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is a severe, X-linked muscle wasting disorder. The disease is caused by mutations in the DMD gene, leading to loss of the dystrophin protein which in turn causes progressive muscle degeneration and premature death. Various mouse models have been developed to study the disease, such as the commonly used mdx mouse, which has a nonsense mutation in exon 23, though this mutation is not characteristically present in humans.

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