Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-chromosomal recessively inherited disease, which affects boys from early childhood on. Loss or severe reduction of dystrophin protein induces a plethora of different physiological mechanisms finally leading to myofibre necrosis, atrophy, structural abnormalities, loss of homeostatic functions, and exhaustion of satellite cells. Over time, skeletal and cardiac muscles undergo structural remodelling with development of fibrosis and fatty tissue replacement.

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