Santiago T. Lubillo September 5, 2017

Journal of Neurosurgery, Ahead of Print. OBJECTIVEIn severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the effects of decompressive craniectomy (DC) on brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbtO2) and outcome are unclear. The authors aimed to investigate whether changes in PbtO2 after DC could be used as an independent prognostic factor.METHODSThe authors conducted a retrospective, observational study at 2 university hospital ICUs. The study included 42 patients who were admitted with isolated moderate or severe TBI and underwent intracranial pressure (ICP) and PbtO2 monitoring before and after DC. The indication for DC was an ICP higher than 25 mm Hg refractory to first-tier medical treatment. Patients who underwent primary DC for mass lesion evacuation were excluded. However, patients were included who had undergone previous surgery as long as it was not a craniectomy. ICP/PbtO2 monitoring probes were located in an apparently normal area of the most damaged hemisphere based on cranial CT scanning findings. PbtO2 values were routinely recorded hourly before and after DC, but for comparisons the authors used the first PbtO2 value on ICU admission and the number of hours with PbtO2 < 15 mm Hg before DC, as well as the mean PbtO2 every 6 hours during 24 hours pre- and post-DC. The end point of the study was the 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale; a score of 4 or 5 was considered a favorable outcome, whereas a score of 1–3 was considered an unfavorable outcome.RESULTSOf the 42 patients included, 26 underwent unilateral DC and 16 bilateral DC. The median Glasgow Coma

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