Cameron A. Elliott July 7, 2018

Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, Ahead of Print.
OBJECTIVEThe aim of this study was to investigate long-term seizure outcome, rate of reoperation, and postoperative neuropsychological performance following selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) or anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in pediatric patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).METHODSThe authors performed a retrospective review of cases of medically refractory pediatric TLE treated initially with either SelAH or ATL. Standardized pre- and postoperative evaluation included seizure charting, surface and long-term video-electroencephalography, 1.5-T MRI, and neuropsychological testing.RESULTSA total of 79 patients treated initially with SelAH (n = 18) or ATL (n = 61) were included in this study, with a mean follow-up of 5.3 ± 4 years (range 1–16 years). The patients’ average age at initial surgery was 10.6 ± 5 years, with an average surgical delay of 5.7 ± 4 years between seizure onset and surgery. Seizure freedom (Engel I) following the initial operation was significantly more likely following ATL (47/61, 77%) than SelAH (8/18, 44%; p = 0.017, Fisher’s exact test). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients with postoperative neuropsychological deficits following SelAH (8/18, 44%) or ATL (21/61, 34%). However, reoperation was significantly more likely following SelAH (8/18, 44%) than after ATL (7/61, 11%; p = 0.004) and was more likely to result in Engel I outcome for ATL after failed SelAH (7/8, 88%) than for posterior extension after failed ATL (1/7, 14%; p = 0.01). Reoperation was well tolerated without significant neuropsychological deterioration. Ultimately, including 15 reoperations, 58 of 79 (73%) patients were free from disabling seizures at the most recent follow-up.CONCLUSIONSSelAH among pediatric patients with medically refractory unilateral TLE yields significantly worse rates of seizure control compared with ATL. Reoperation is significantly more likely following SelAH, is not associated with incremental neuropsychological deterioration, and frequently results in freedom from disabling seizures. These results are significant in that they argue against using SelAH for pediatric TLE surgery.

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