Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, Ahead of Print.
OBJECTIVECombined endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETC) and choroid plexus cauterization (CPC)—ETV/CPC— is being investigated to increase the rate of shunt independence in infants with hydrocephalus. The degree of CPC necessary to achieve improved rates of shunt independence is currently unknown.METHODSUsing data from a single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study involving patients who underwent ETV/CPC for treatment of infantile hydrocephalus, comparative statistical analyses were performed to detect a difference in need for subsequent CSF diversion procedure in patients undergoing partial CPC (describes unilateral CPC or bilateral CPC that only extended from the foramen of Monro [FM] to the atrium on one side) or subtotal CPC (describes CPC extending from the FM to the posterior temporal horn bilaterally) using a rigid neuroendoscope. Propensity scores for extent of CPC were calculated using age and etiology. Propensity scores were used to perform 1) case-matching comparisons and 2) Cox multivariable regression, adjusting for propensity score in the unmatched cohort. Cox multivariable regression adjusting for age and etiology, but not propensity score was also performed as a third statistical technique.RESULTSEighty-four patients who underwent ETV/CPC had sufficient data to be included in the analysis. Subtotal CPC was performed in 58 patients (69%) and partial CPC in 26 (31%). The ETV/CPC success rates at 6 and 12 months, respectively, were 49% and 41% for patients undergoing subtotal CPC and 35% and 31% for those undergoing partial CPC. Cox multivariate regression in a 48-patient cohort case-matched by propensity score demonstrated no added effect of increased extent of CPC on ETV/CPC survival (HR 0.868, 95% CI 0.422–1.789, p = 0.702). Cox multivariate regression including all patients, with adjustment for propensity score, demonstrated no effect of extent of CPC on ETV/CPC survival (HR 0.845, 95% CI 0.462–1.548, p = 0.586). Cox multivariate regression including all patients, with adjustment for age and etiology, but not propensity score, demonstrated no effect of extent of CPC on ETV/CPC survival (HR 0.908, 95% CI 0.495–1.664, p = 0.755).CONCLUSIONSUsing multiple comparative statistical analyses, no difference in need for subsequent CSF diversion procedure was detected between patients in this cohort who underwent partial versus subtotal CPC. Further investigation regarding whether there is truly no difference between partial versus subtotal extent of CPC in larger patient populations and whether further gain in CPC success can be achieved with complete CPC is warranted.