Ryan P. Morton September 5, 2017

Journal of Neurosurgery, Ahead of Print. OBJECTIVEDespite their technical simplicity, cranioplasty procedures carry high reported morbidity rates. The authors here present the largest study to date on complications after cranioplasty, focusing specifically on the relationship between complications and timing of the operation.METHODSThe authors retrospectively reviewed all cranioplasty cases performed at Harborview Medical Center over the past 10.75 years. In addition to relevant clinical and demographic characteristics, patient morbidity and mortality data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to analyze variables potentially associated with the risk of infection, hydrocephalus, seizure, hematoma, and bone flap resorption.RESULTSOver the course of 10.75 years, 754 cranioplasties were performed at a single institution. Sixty percent of the patients who underwent these cranioplasties were male, and the median follow-up overall was 233 days. The 30-day mortality rate was 0.26% (2 cases, both due to postoperative epidural hematoma). Overall, 24.6% percent of the patients experienced at least 1 complication including infection necessitating explantation of the flap (6.6%), postoperative hydrocephalus requiring a shunt (9.0%), resorption of the flap requiring synthetic cranioplasty (6.3%), seizure (4.1%), postoperative hematoma requiring evacuation (2.3%), and other (1.6%).The rate of infection was significantly higher if the cranioplasty had been performed < 14 days after the initial craniectomy (p = 0.007, Holm-Bonferroni–adjusted p = 0.028). Hydrocephalus was significantly correlated with time to cranioplasty (OR 0.92 per 10-day increase, p < 0.001) and was most common in patients whose cranioplasty had been performed < 90 days after initial craniectomy. New-onset seizure,

http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2016.11.JNS161917?mi=67t04w&af=R

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