Codes of professional conduct continue to be an essential component of maintaining the integrity of individuals, academic institutions, and medical societies. We review ethical issues of professional conduct focusing on conflicts of interest (COI). We explain how to manage or mitigate COI in the context of professionals involved in headache medicine and its medical specialty societies.
Oxygen is the standard of care for acute treatment of cluster headache. CMS, the US Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services, has made the indefensible decision to not cover oxygen for cluster headache for patients with Medicaid and Medicare insurance, despite the evidence and professional guidelines.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Migraine Physical Function Impact Diary (MPFID), a novel patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure for assessing the impact of migraine on physical functioning.
In a prospective, observational study, adults with episodic migraine (EM) or chronic migraine (CM) used an eDiary to complete the MPFID (assessing daily impacts of migraine on physical function) and a headache diary (capturing migraine days, migraine pain intensity, and migraine interference) each day, and other PRO instruments related to migraine.
Fremanezumab (formerly TEV-48125) is a monoclonal antibody directed against calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP), a validated target for migraine preventive therapy. In two previous phase 2 studies, fremanezumab administered once every 28 days for 12 weeks was found to be effective and safe as a preventive treatment for patients suffering from episodic migraine (EM) and chronic migraine (CM).
Histamine is an ancient “tissue amine” preceding multicellular organisms. In the central nervous system (CNS), its fibers originate solely from the tuberomammillary nucleus and travel throughout the brain. It is mainly responsible for wakefulness, energy homeostasis, and memory consolidation. Recently, several studies suggest a potential role of histamine in migraine pathogenesis and management.
Febrile infection–related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a catastrophic epileptic encephalopathy described as explosive onset of super refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) in previously healthy children. We describe electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities in the hyperacute phase of FIRES, with the aim of contributing to the diagnostic characterization of a syndrome otherwise lacking specific biomarkers.
We have previously found that the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) contributes to the mechanism of action of the ketogenic diet (KD), an established treatment for pediatric refractory epilepsy. We have found that the KD increases brain PPARγ and that inhibition or genetic loss of PPARγ prevents the antiseizure effects of the KD on (1) acutely induced seizures in nonepileptic mice and (2) spontaneous recurrent seizures in epileptic mice.
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a common cause of death in epilepsy and frequently occurs following generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTCS) in sleep. Postictal generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression (PGES), postictal immobility, and periictal respiratory dysfunction are potential risk factors for SUDEP.
Dravet syndrome, an early onset epileptic encephalopathy, is most often caused by de novo mutation of the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A. Mouse models with deletion of Scn1a recapitulate Dravet syndrome phenotypes, including spontaneous generalized tonic–clonic seizures, susceptibility to seizures induced by elevated body temperature, and elevated risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.