Han Ly, Nirmal Verma, Fengen Wu, Miao Liu, Kathryn E. Saatman, Peter T. Nelson, John T. Slevin, Larry B. Goldstein, Geert Jan Biessels, Florin Despa September 3, 2017

Objective

The brain blood vessels of patients with type 2 diabetes and dementia have deposition of amylin, an amyloidogenic hormone cosecreted with insulin. It is not known whether vascular amylin deposition is a consequence or a trigger of vascular injury. We tested the hypothesis that the vascular amylin deposits cause endothelial dysfunction and microvascular injury and are modulated by amylin transport in the brain via plasma apolipoproteins.

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Eric S. Rosenthal, Jan Claassen, Mark S. Wainwright, Aatif M. Husain, Henrikas Vaitkevicius, Shane Raines, Ethan Hoffmann, Helen Colquhoun, James J. Doherty, Stephen J. Kanes September 3, 2017

ABSTRACT

Objective: Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is a life-threatening form of status epilepticus that continues or recurs despite 24 hours or more of anesthetic treatment. We conducted a multi-center, phase 1/2 study in SRSE patients to evaluate the safety and tolerability of brexanolone (USAN; formerly SAGE-547 Injection), a proprietary, aqueous formulation of the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone.

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Marinos C. Dalakas, Goran Rakocevic, James M. Dambrosia, Harry Alexopoulos, Beverly McElroy September 3, 2017

Objective

In stiff person syndrome (SPS), an antibody-mediated impaired γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurotransmission is believed to cause muscle stiffness and spasms. Most patients improve with GABA-enhancing drugs and intravenous immunoglobulin, but some respond poorly and remain disabled. The need for more effective therapy prompted a trial with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab.

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Valentina Escott-Price, Amanda J. Myers, Matt Huentelman, John Hardy September 3, 2017

Previous estimates of the utility of polygenic risk score analysis for the prediction of Alzheimer disease have given area under the curve (AUC) estimates of <80%. However, these have been based on the genetic analysis of clinical case–control series. Here, we apply the same analytic approaches to a pathological case–control series and show a predictive AUC of 84%. We suggest that this analysis has clinical utility and that there is limited room for further improvement using genetic data. Ann Neurol 2017;82:311–314.

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Maria Centeno, Tim M. Tierney, Suejen Perani, Elhum A. Shamshiri, Kelly St Pier, Charlotte Wilkinson, Daniel Konn, Serge Vulliemoz, Frédéric Grouiller, Louis Lemieux, Ronit M. Pressler, Christopher A. Clark, J. Helen Cross, David W. Carmichael September 3, 2017

Objective

Surgical treatment in epilepsy is effective if the epileptogenic zone (EZ) can be correctly localized and characterized. Here we use simultaneous electroencephalography–functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) data to derive EEG-fMRI and electrical source imaging (ESI) maps. Their yield and their individual and combined ability to (1) localize the EZ and (2) predict seizure outcome were then evaluated.

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Ugur Uygunoglu, Burcu Zeydan, Yesim Ozguler, Serdal Ugurlu, Emire Seyahi, Naci Kocer, Civan Islak, Kejal Kantarci, Sabahattin Saip, Aksel Siva, Orhun H. Kantarci September 3, 2017

Objective

To describe the clinical and distinctive imaging features of myelopathy associated with Behçet’s disease (BD).

Methods

We evaluated the records of patients meeting the following criteria: (1) fulfillment of the International Study Group criteria for BD; (2) clinically suggestive of myelopathy; (3) simultaneous spinal cord and brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) within 1 month of acute worsening of myelopathy; and (4) follow-up duration ≥ 1 year after initial MRI evaluation.

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Kayla MD Cornett, Manoj P Menezes, Rosemary R Shy, Isabella Moroni, Emanuela Pagliano, Davide Pareyson, Timothy Estilow, Sabrina W Yum, Trupti Bhandari, Francesco Muntoni, Matilde Laura, Mary M Reilly, Richard S Finkel, Kate J Eichinger, David N Herrmann, Paula Bray, Mark Halaki, Michael E Shy, Joshua Burns, September 3, 2017

Abstract

Objective: To determine the rate of disease progression in a longitudinal natural history study of children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT).

Methods: 206 (103 female) participants aged 3-20 years enrolled in the Inherited Neuropathies Consortium were assessed at baseline and 2-years.

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Elodie Laridan, Frederik Denorme, Linda Desender, Olivier François, Tommy Andersson, Hans Deckmyn, Karen Vanhoorelbeke, Simon F. Meyer September 3, 2017

Objective

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been shown to promote thrombus formation. Little is known about the exact composition of thrombi that cause ischemic stroke. In particular, no information is yet available on the presence of NETs in cerebral occlusions. Such information is, however, essential to improve current thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA).

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