Qi Yuan, Weidong Zhou, Liren Zhang, Fan Zhang, Fangzhou Xu, Yan Leng, Dongmei Wei, Meina Chen September 3, 2017

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterized by the recurrence of sudden abnormal reactions of brain [1]. Epileptic seizures resulting from excessive neuronal discharge are usually accompanied by disturbances in terms of movement, sensation, mood, or mental function [2,3]. There are about 37 million patients around the world suffering from this kind of chronic neurological disorder.… Read More...

Xavier De Tiège, Daniel Lundqvist, Sándor Beniczky, Stefano Seri, Ritva Paetau September 3, 2017

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive neurophysiological technique that provides a direct measure of neuronal activity with a millisecond time scale (for reviews, see, e.g., [1–3]). MEG records the magnetic fields mainly generated by the postsynaptic potentials of cortical pyramidal neurons (for reviews, see, e.g., [1,2,4]).… Read More...

Anina du, Toit, Chrisma Pretorius September 3, 2017

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), resemble or mimics epileptic seizures (ES), but are in reality episodes of altered experience, sensation and movement, not as a result of abnormal electrical discharges in the brain, but rather underlying psychological stressors [1–3]. PNES is categorized as a conversion disorder, convulsion/seizure type by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4].… Read More...

Piergiorgio d’ Orio, Veronica Pelliccia, Francesca Gozzo, Francesco Cardinale, Laura Castana, Giorgio Lo Russo, Gabriella Bottini, Pina Scarpa, Massimo Cossu September 3, 2017

Surgery represents a useful and effective treatment option for drug resistant focal epilepsy. Its effectiveness and safety were already demonstrated in temporal lobe epilepsy [1]. Excellent results were reported in children [2] and in young adults [3]. Regarding older patients, their age was thought to be a relative contraindication to epilepsy surgery owing to the perception of increased surgical risks and reduced chances of a favorable prognosis on seizures [4–6].… Read More...

Michelle L. Bellon, Christopher Barton, Nikki McCaffrey, Denise Parker, Claire Hutchinson September 3, 2017

Seizures are identified as an ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) condition, where, in some cases, hospitalisation can be avoided with appropriate preventative care and management of the condition [1–3]. It is acknowledged that not all hospitalisations for seizures are preventable, including first seizures, febrile convulsions, seizures occurring from other diagnoses/non-epilepsy related causes, and uncontrolled epilepsy [4], with up to 30–40% of recurring seizures resistant to current treatment options [5].… Read More...

Ronak Ved, Naomi Cobbold, Kueni Igbagiri, Mark Willis, Paul Leach, Malik Zaben September 3, 2017

The internet is one of the most popular sources of healthcare information for patients [1]. Online resources can facilitate the process of informed consent and patient-centred shared decision-making, as they allow patients to gain understanding of their condition, and the treatments available, at their own pace.… Read More...

Khalid Hamandi, Sandor Beniczky, Beate Diehl, Rosalind H. Kandler, Ronit M. Pressler, Arjune Sen, Juliet Solomon, Matthew C. Walker, Manny Bagary, with ILAE British Chapter Workshop Attendees September 3, 2017

Long term inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an essential investigation in tertiary epilepsy centres [1,2]. VEM involves the recording of continuous and simultaneous video, EEG and ECG with a view to capturing clinical events of interest. The recording is typically carried out over 2–5 days, but can be longer according to the clinical situation.… Read More...

Peter Yan, Tamar Melman, Sherry Yan, Munkhzul Otgonsuren, Zachary Grinspan September 3, 2017

Non-convulsive seizures (NCS) affect 8–50% [1–6] of critically ill patients and are associated with non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), which has a high mortality rate of 17–51% [7–9]. Continuous EEG (cEEG) is a valuable tool in diagnosing NCS; however, it is labor and time intensive to review.… Read More...

Maria Stella Vari, Monica Traverso, Tommaso Bellini, Francesca Madia, Francesca Pinto, Carlo Minetti, Pasquale Striano, Federico Zara September 3, 2017

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy and may be associated with acquired central nervous system lesions or could be genetic.Various susceptibility genes and environmental factors are believed to be involved in the aetiology of TLE, which is considered to be a heterogeneous, polygenic, and complex disorder.… Read More...

Gregg H. Rawlings, Ian Brown, Brendan Stone, Markus Reuber September 3, 2017

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. PNES superficially resemble epileptic seizures, but are not associated with epileptiform activity. Instead, PNES are considered to have a psychological basis and can be best understood as a dissociative response to distressing stimuli [1,2].… Read More...

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