Front Neurol. 2023 Aug 3;14:1136367. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2023.1136367. eCollection 2023.
The human brain is an exceptionally complex organ that is comprised of billions of neurons. Therefore, when a traumatic event such as a concussion occurs, somatic, cognitive, behavioral, and sleep impairments are the common outcome. Each concussion is unique in the sense that the magnitude of biomechanical forces and the direction, rotation, and source of those forces are different for each concussive event. This helps to explain the unpredictable nature of post-concussion symptoms that can arise and resolve. The purpose of this narrative review is to connect the anatomical location, healthy function, and associated post-concussion symptoms of some major cerebral gray and white matter brain regions and the cerebellum. As a non-exhaustive description of post-concussion symptoms nor comprehensive inclusion of all brain regions, we have aimed to amalgamate the research performed for specific brain regions into a single article to clarify and enhance clinical and research concussion assessment. The current status of concussion diagnosis is highly subjective and primarily based on self-report of symptoms, so this review may be able to provide a connection between brain anatomy and the clinical presentation of concussions to enhance medical imaging assessments. By explaining anatomical relevance in terms of clinical concussion symptom presentation, an increased understanding of concussions may also be achieved to improve concussion recognition and diagnosis.