Childs Nerv Syst. 2023 Oct 6. doi: 10.1007/s00381-023-06173-y. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains the commonest neurological and neurosurgical cause of death and survivor disability among children and young adults. This review summarizes some of the important recent publications that have added to our understanding of the condition and advanced clinical practice.
METHODS: Targeted review of the literature on various aspects of paediatric TBI over the last 5 years.
RESULTS: Recent literature has provided new insights into the burden of paediatric TBI and patient outcome across geographical divides and the severity spectrum. Although CT scans remain a standard, rapid sequence MRI without sedation has been increasingly used in the frontline. Advanced MRI sequences are also being used to better understand pathology and to improve prognostication. Various initiatives in paediatric and adult TBI have contributed regionally and internationally to harmonising research efforts in mild and severe TBI. Emerging data on advanced brain monitoring from paediatric studies and extrapolated from adult studies continues to slowly advance our understanding of its role. There has been growing interest in non-invasive monitoring, although the clinical applications remain somewhat unclear. Contributions of the first large scale comparative effectiveness trial have advanced knowledge, especially for the use of hyperosmolar therapies and cerebrospinal fluid drainage in severe paediatric TBI. Finally, the growth of large and even global networks is a welcome development that addresses the limitations of small sample size and generalizability typical of single-centre studies.
CONCLUSION: Publications in recent years have contributed iteratively to progress in understanding paediatric TBI and how best to manage patients.