Burns Trauma. 2023 Sep 4;11:tkad033. doi: 10.1093/burnst/tkad033. eCollection 2023.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupts normal brain function and is associated with high morbidity and fatality rates. TBI is characterized as mild, moderate or severe depending on its severity. The damage may be transient and limited to the dura matter, with only subtle changes in cerebral parenchyma, or life-threatening with obvious focal contusions, hematomas and edema. Blood vessels are often injured in TBI. Even in mild TBI, dysfunctional cerebral vascular repair may result in prolonged symptoms and poor outcomes. Various distinct types of cells participate in vascular repair after TBI. A better understanding of the cellular response and function in vascular repair can facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this review, we analyzed the mechanism of cerebrovascular impairment and the repercussions following various forms of TBI. We then discussed the role of distinct cell types in the repair of meningeal and parenchyma vasculature following TBI, including endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, pericytes, glial cells (astrocytes and microglia), neurons, myeloid cells (macrophages and monocytes) and meningeal lymphatic endothelial cells. Finally, possible treatment techniques targeting these unique cell types for vascular repair after TBI are discussed.