October 3, 2023

Traffic Inj Prev. 2023 Sep 14:1-8. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2023.2255913. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate strains in the human brain in regulatory, research, and due care frontal crashes by simulating those impacts. In addition, brain strain simulations were estimated for belted human volunteer tests and in impacts between two players in National Football League (NFL), some with no injury and some with mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (mTBI).

METHODS: The brain strain responses were determined using version 5 of the Global Human Body Modeling Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile human brain model. One hundred and sixty simulations with the brain model were conducted using rotational velocities and accelerations of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD’s) or those of human volunteers in sled or crash tests, as inputs to the model and strain related responses like Maximum Principal Strains (MPS) and Cumulative Strain Damage Measure (CSDM) in various regions of the brain were monitored. The simulated vehicle tests ranged from sled tests at 24 and 32 kph delta-V with three-point belts without airbags to full scale crash and sled tests at 56 kph and a series of Research Mobile Deformable Barrier (RMDB) tests described in Prasad et al.

RESULTS: The severity of rotational input into the model as represented by BrIC, averaged between 0.5 and 1.2 for the various test conditions, and as high as 1.5 for an individual case. The MPS responses for the various test conditions averaged between 0.28 and 0.86 and as high as 1.3 in one test condition. The MPS responses in the brain for volunteers, low velocity sled, and NCAP tests were similar to those in the no-mTBI group in the NFL cases and consistent with real world accident data. The MPS responses of the brain in angular crash and sled tests were similar to those in the mTBI group.

CONCLUSIONS: The brain strain estimations do not indicate the likelihood of severe-to-fatal brain injuries in the crash environments studied in this paper. However, using the risk functions associated with BrIC, severe-to-fatal brain injuries (AIS4+) are predicted in several environments in which they are not observed or expected.

PMID:37706464 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2023.2255913