Praxis (Bern 1994). 2023 Oct;112(12):582-588.
Sports medicine, as a classical cross-sectional subject, includes diverse topics which show gender-specific differences and thus require a differentiated consideration. Evidence-based research exists in the field of musculoskeletal medicine, for example, in relation to cruciate ligament injuries or concussions. Marked differences in trainability (both muscular and cardiac or pulmonary) are also emerging. Pregnancy and sport is also a topic of increasing interest. Close interdisciplinary care of female athletes, knowledge of physiological changes during pregnancy and contraindications to sports activity (especially with higher intensity) are essential here. Aspects in the field of internal sports medicine with gender differences are topics like iron deficiency or the relative energy deficit (RED-S). There are also sex and gender differences with implications for preventative aspects such as the annual screening examination (so called ‘preparticipation screening’).