Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2023 Oct 8:acad067.341. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acad067.341. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: Previous analysis in a pediatric sample demonstrated that pre-injury anxiety/depression significantly predicted post-concussive symptom severity and longer time to recovery. The current study investigated the reproducibility of results using a sample who identified as Hispanic or Latine (H/L).
METHOD: Participants were a subsample of H/L youths (n = 443) from an outpatient mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)/concussion program (June 2017 – present). Eligibility criteria included: 1) mTBI (GCS ≥ 13) and 2) 5-17 years of age. Families self-reported on youth’s pre-injury anxiety/depression symptoms and history of psychotherapy. Concussion symptoms were measured via the Post-Concussive Symptom Inventory (PCSI) at each visit. Regression analysis controlled for baseline symptoms, days since injury, and age.
RESULTS: Youths (M age = 13.13; SD = 3.21) with pre-injury anxiety/depression reported significantly higher PCSI scores at baseline (t(98) = -6.90, p < 0.001) and visit 1 (t(123) = -6.39, p = 0.002). They also took significantly longer to receive clearance for high risk activities (t(85) = -3.71, p < 0.001) than those without pre-injury anxiety/depression. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that history of psychotherapy significantly predicted higher PCSI scores at visit 1 after controlling for aforementioned covariates (ꞵ = 9.95, S.E. = 3.25, p = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous findings, H/L youth with pre-concussion anxiety/depression reported higher symptoms and longer recovery time. However, the strongest predictor of symptoms for H/L youth was history of therapy, instead of anxiety/depression in the general sample. Variability in the strength of predictors warrants additional investigation and clinical attention to race/ethnicity to avoid overgeneralization.