October 2, 2023

FASEB J. 2023 Sep;37(9):e23112. doi: 10.1096/fj.202300752R.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly diffuse axonal injury (DAI), often results in sympathetic hyperactivity, which can exacerbate the prognosis of TBI patients. A key component of this process is the role of neutrophils in causing neuroinflammation after TBI by forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), but the connection between NETs and sympathetic excitation following TBI remains unclear. Utilizing a DAI rat model, the current investigation examined the role of NETs and the HMGB1/JNK/AP1 signaling pathway in this process. The findings revealed that sympathetic excitability intensifies and peaks 3 days post-injury, a pattern mirrored by the activation of microglia, and the escalated NETs and HMGB1 levels. Subsequent in vitro exploration validated that HMGB1 fosters microglial activation via the JNK/AP1 pathway. Moreover, in vivo experimentation revealed that the application of anti-HMGB1 and AP1 inhibitors can mitigate microglial M1 polarization post-DAI, effectively curtailing sympathetic hyperactivity. Therefore, this research elucidates that post-TBI, NETs within the PVN may precipitate sympathetic hyperactivity by stimulating M1 microglial polarization through the HMGB1/JNK/AP1 pathway.

PMID:37534961 | DOI:10.1096/fj.202300752R