BMC Emerg Med. 2023 Sep 19;23(1):109. doi: 10.1186/s12873-023-00859-x.
BACKGROUND: Globally, traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability which affects more than 69 million individuals a year.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the outcome and associated factors of traumatic brain injury among adult patients treated in Amhara regional state comprehensive specialized hospitals.
METHOD: Institutional-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from January 1, 2018, to December 30, 2020. A simple random sampling technique was used and a checklist was used to extract data between March 15 and April 15, 2021. The data were entered into Epi-data version 4.2 and exported to SPSS version 25 for analysis after being checked for consistency. Associated variables with outcomes of traumatic brain injury were determined by a binary logistic regression model. The degree of association was interpreted by using AOR and a 95% confidence interval with a p-value less than or equal to 0.05 at 95% CI was considered statistically significant.
RESULT: In this study road traffic injury was the most frequent cause of traumatic brain injuries among adult patients, accounting for 181 (37.5%), followed by assault, accounting for 117 (24.2%) which affects adult age groups. One-third of the participant had a moderate Glasgow coma scale of 174(36%). Only 128(26.8%) patients arrived within one hour. One hundred sixty, 160 (33.1%) of patients had a mild traumatic brain injury, whereas, 149(36%) of patients had a severe traumatic brain injury. Regarding computerized tomography scans findings, the hematoma was the most common (n = 163, 33.7%). Ninety-one, 91(18.8%) of participants had cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea, and, 92(19%) were diagnosed with a positive battle sign. The overall prevalence of unfavorable outcomes after traumatic brain injury was found to be 35.2% (95%CI (30.8-39.1). Having additional Injury, hypoxia, time to hospital presentation after 24 h, severe Glasgow Coma Scale, moderate Glasgow Coma Scale, tachypnea, bradypnea, and cerebrospinal fluid Othorrhea, were factors associated with unfavorable outcomes.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: In this study, the overall unfavorable outcome was experienced by about four out of every 10 victims of traumatic brain injury. Time of arrival > 24 h, low Glasgow coma scale, additional injury, Cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea, abnormal respiration, and hypoxia were significant predictors of unfavorable outcomes. To reduce the adverse effects of traumatic brain injury in adults, it is therefore desirable to guarantee safe road traffic flow and improve health care services.