Brain Neurorehabil. 2023 Jul 7;16(2):e15. doi: 10.12786/bn.2023.16.e15. eCollection 2023 Jul.
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and whiplash injury (WI) may lead to long-term disabling consequences known as post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). PCS and WAD patients commonly complain of conditions encompassing dizziness, vertigo, headache, neck pain, visual complaints, anxiety, and neurocognitive dysfunctions. A proper medical work-up is a priority in order to rule out any acute treatable consequences. However investigations may remain poorly conclusive. Gathered in the head and neck structures, the ocular sensorimotor, the vestibular, and the cervical proprioceptive systems, all involved in postural control, may be damaged by mTBI or WI. Their dysfunctions are associated with a wide range of functional disorders including symptoms reported by PCS and WAD patients. In addition, the stomatognathic system needs to be specifically assessed particularly when associated to WI. Evidence for considering the post-traumatic impairment of these systems in PCS and WAD-related symptoms is still lacking but seems promising. Furthermore, few studies have considered the assessment and/or treatment of these widely interconnected systems from a comprehensive perspective. We argue that further research focusing on consequences of mTBI and WI on the systems involved in the postural control are necessary in order to bring new perspective of treatment.