Brain Sci. 2023 Sep 21;13(9):1352. doi: 10.3390/brainsci13091352.
Mitigating the substantial public health impact of concussion is a particularly difficult challenge. This is partly because concussion is a highly prevalent condition, and diagnosis is predominantly symptom-based. Much of contemporary concussion management relies on symptom interpretation and accurate reporting by patients. These types of reports may be influenced by a variety of factors for each individual, such as preexisting mental health conditions, headache disorders, and sleep conditions, among other factors. This can all be contributory to non-specific and potentially misleading clinical manifestations in the aftermath of a concussion. This review aimed to conduct an examination of the existing literature on emerging approaches for objectively evaluating potential concussion, as well as to highlight current gaps in understanding where further research is necessary. Objective assessments of visual and ocular motor concussion symptoms, specialized imaging techniques, and tissue-based concentrations of specific biomarkers have all shown promise for specifically characterizing diffuse brain injuries, and will be important to the future of concussion diagnosis and management. The consolidation of these approaches into a comprehensive examination progression will be the next horizon for increased precision in concussion diagnosis and treatment.