PeerJ. 2023 Aug 25;11:e15933. doi: 10.7717/peerj.15933. eCollection 2023.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and the condition and prognosis of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
METHODS: A retrospective study design was used, and the clinical data of 131 TBI patients from February 2019 to January 2022 were analyzed. Patients were divided into mild (13-15 points), moderate (9-12 points), or severe (3-8 points) groups according to their Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score after admission. The serum levels of BDNF, MIF, and MBP in the three groups were compared, and their correlation with the severity of TBI was analyzed. Patients were then separated into a good prognosis group (4-5 points) and a poor prognosis group (≤3 points) based on their Glasgow Prognostic Score (GOS) after 6 months of follow-up. The predictive power of serum indexes and combined detection on prognosis was analyzed.
RESULTS: Patients were classified into a mild group (n = 63), moderate group (n = 47), and severe group (n = 21) based on their GCS, with a significant difference noted in serum levels of MIF, MBP, and BDNF among patients with different degrees of severity (all P < 0.001). The MIF, MBP, and BDNF levels were lower in the mild group compared to the moderate (all P < 0.001) and severe group (all P < 0.001). Additionally, the MIF and BDNF levels in the moderate group were lower compared to the severe group (P = 0.011, P = 0.002). Patients with mild severity had lower serum MIF, MBP, and BDNF levels than those with other degrees, and these indexes were positively correlated with the severity of TBI (all P < 0.001, r = 0.62, r = 0.48, r = 0.58). Based on the GOS, patients were divided into a good prognosis group (n = 107) and a poor prognosis group (n = 24), with the levels of MIF, MBP, and BDNF in the good prognosis group being significantly lower than those in the poor prognosis group (P < 0.001, P = 0.007, P = 0.003). The area under the curve (AUC) of MIF was higher than that of MBP and BDNF in predicting the prognosis of TBI patients; however, the statistical differences were not significant (MIF vs. MBP, P = 0.239; MIF vs. BDNF, P = 0.211; BDNF vs. MBP, P = 0.899). The center line has a large displacement, CT annular cisterna compression, increased white blood cell count, MBP and BDNF were risk factors for prognosis in TBI patients (P = 0.005, P = 0.001, P = 0.005, P = 0.033, P = 0.044).
CONCLUSION: The serum levels of MIF, MBP, and BDNF in TBI patients were positively correlated with the severity of the disease, and MBP, BDNF levels had predictive value in determining patient prognosis.