Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2023 Nov 3;235:108040. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2023.108040. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: There is substantial debate on the best method to reverse factor Xa-inhibitors in patients following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) have been used for this indication but their role has been questioned. This study reported failure rates with PCC in patients following TBI and as a secondary objective, compared 4-factor (4 F-PCC) and activated PCC (APCC).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with TBI on factor Xa-inhibitors admitted to one of two trauma centers were retrospectively identified. Patients with penetrating TBI, delays in PCC administration (>6 h), receipt of tranexamic acid, factor VIIa or no follow up CT-scan were excluded. The primary outcome was treatment failure defined as hematoma expansion > 20% from baseline for SDH, EDH or IPH, a new hematoma not present on the initial CT scan or any expansion of a SAH or IVH. Hematoma expansion was further categorized as symptomatic or asymptomatic, designated by a change in the motor GCS score, neurologic exam or change ≥ 3 in NIH Stroke Scale. Multi-variate analysis was performed.
RESULTS: There were 43 patients with a mean age of 77 ± 13 years with primarily mild TBI (95%) after a ground level fall (79%). The mean dose was 41 ± 12 units/kg. Sixty percent received 4 F-PCC and 40% APCC. The incidence of treatment failure was 28% (12/43). Of the 12 patients with hematoma expansion, only 3 were symptomatic (9.3%). Hematoma expansion with 4 F-PCC and APCC were similar (27% vs. 29%,p = .859). Only sex was associated with hematoma expansion on multivariate analysis [OR (95% CI) = 6.7 (1.1 – 40.9)].
CONCLUSION: PCC was an effective option for factor Xa inhibitor reversal following TBI. The relationship between radiographic expansion and clinical expansion was poor.