Background: Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is an important cause of ischemic stroke worldwide due to its higher risk of recurrence with medical therapy. Although some large randomized studies failed to show the superiority of surgical treatment compared with medical therapy, the results of medical therapy are not sufficient. There are patients who still benefit from surgical treatment. This retrospective analysis aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of surgical therapy with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and/or stenting (PTA/PTAS) or extracranial-intracranial (EC/IC) bypass surgery for patients with ICAS.

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