Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by complex lesions of the lungs and other organs as well as a progressive obstruction of the airway. In COPD patients, heart failure (HF) is associated with worse conditions such as inflammation, arterial stiffness, and increased risk mortality. However, the association of HF, COPD, and stroke are unclear; the examination of the role of HF, especially right HF, about increased risk of stroke in COPD patients has not been studied.

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