Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common autosomal recessive diseases in humans, occurring at a frequency of 1 in 365 African-American and 1 in 50 sub-Saharan African births. Despite progress in managing complications of SCD, these remain a major health burden worldwide. Stroke is a common and serious complication of SCD, most often associated with steno-occlusive cerebral arteriopathy, but little is known about its pathogenesis. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is currently the only predictive test for future development of stroke in patients with sickle cell anemia and is used to guide preventative treatment.

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