Data on the risk of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD), in patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are lacking.


A total of 4,229 patients who were aged ≥20 years and had received a diagnosis of PKD were included in the PKD cohort. For each PKD case identified, 1 participant aged ≥20 years without a history of PKD, dementia, or PD was selected from the comparison cohort. For each patient with PKD, the corresponding controls were selected 1:1 on the basis of the nearest propensity score calculated using logistic regression.


The incidence density rates of dementia were 4.31 and 2.50 per 1,000 person-years in the PKD and control cohorts, respectively. A 2.04-fold higher risk of dementia was observed in patients with PKD than in controls (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46–2.85). Regarding the risk of different dementia subtypes, including AD and vascular dementia (VaD), the aHR for AD and presenile dementia was 2.71 (95% CI 1.08–6.75) and that for VaD was 0.90 (95% CI 0.43–1.87) in patients with PKD compared with controls, after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities. Compared with controls, the risk of PD increased by 1.78-fold (95% CI 1.14–2.79) in patients with PKD.


In clinical practice, health care professionals should be aware of the risk of neurodegenerative diseases in patients with PKD.


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