Neurotropic herpesviruses can establish lifelong infection in humans and contribute to severe diseases including encephalitis and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms through which the brain’s immune system recognizes and controls viral infections propagating across synaptically linked neuronal circuits have remained unclear.… Read More...
Massi et al. show that signals in the prefrontal cortex related to choices and outcomes are enhanced when reward probabilities are volatile rather than stable. Furthermore, when reward probabilities are volatile, rewards strengthen task-relevant but not task-irrelevant signals.
Nie et al. identify TLR2/4 as crucial mediators of repeated stress-induced microglial activation in the mPFC, which leads to neuronal and behavioral changes through inflammation-related cytokines. These results highlight pivotal roles of innate immunity in the mPFC in repeated stress.
Visual experience promotes the synaptic refinement of the retinogeniculate circuit by inducing the expression of the cytokine receptor Fn14 in excitatory neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus.
How extracellular miRNA signals is unclear. Han et al. describe that miRNA-711, secreted from inoculated lymphoma cells on the back skin, binds TRPA1 ion channels extracellularly on pruriceptive neurons to drive acute and chronic itch via specific core sequence.